The leucine-rich NES binding site of the CRM1-Snurportin1 complex (PDB ID: 3GB8) . The leucine-rich NES sequence of Snurportin1 is 1MEELSQALASSFSVSQ16

NLSs and NESs direct macromolecules in and out of the nucleus. Only one class of prevalent NES, termed the leucine-rich NES, is currently known. Export-Karyopherinβ CRM1 recognizes hundreds of broadly functioning proteins and most of them contain the 8-15 residue leucine-rich NES. Although the first few leucine-rich NESs identified are enriched in leucine residues, most leucine-rich NESs are quite diverse in sequence such that a broad consensus sequence Φ-X2,3-Φ-X2,3-Φ-X-Φ (where Φ is L, V, I, F or M; X is any amino acid) is needed to cover the sequences. Therefore, the leucine-rich NES appears to be a complex signal that needs to be described not just by consensus sequence but also within the structural and physical context of its interactions with CRM1.

NESdb contains over 230 experimentally validated leucine-rich NESs that have been curated from published literature. Structural and physical context of leucine-rich NESs within native cargoes are included as signal location within full-length proteins and methods of validation are provided along with 3D structures (where available), domain organization and secondary structure predictions of the proteins.


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