The leucine-rich NES binding site of the CRM1-Snurportin1 complex (PDB ID: 3GB8) . The leucine-rich NES sequence of Snurportin1 is 1MEELSQALASSFSVSQ16
NLSs and NESs
direct macromolecules in and out of the nucleus. Only one class of prevalent NES, termed the leucine-rich NES,
is currently known. Export-Karyopherinβ CRM1 recognizes hundreds of broadly functioning proteins and most of them contain the 8-15 residue leucine-rich NES.
Although the first few leucine-rich NESs identified
are enriched in leucine residues, most leucine-rich NESs are quite diverse in
sequence such that a broad consensus sequence Φ-X2,3-Φ-X2,3-Φ-X-Φ (where Φ is L, V, I, F or M; X is any amino acid)
is needed to cover the sequences. Therefore, the leucine-rich NES appears to be a complex signal that needs to be described not just by consensus sequence but also within the structural and physical context of its interactions with CRM1.
NESdb contains over 230 experimentally validated leucine-rich NESs that have been curated from published literature. Structural and physical context of leucine-rich NESs within native cargoes are included as signal location within full-length proteins and methods of validation are provided along with 3D structures (where available), domain organization and secondary structure predictions of the proteins.
Show Relevant References
. Weis, K. Regulating access to the genome: nucleocytoplasmic transport throughout the cell cycle. Cell 112, 441-451 (2003)
. Gorlich, D. & Kutay, U. Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15, 607-660 (1999)
. Conti, E. & Izaurralde, E. Nucleocytoplasmic transport enters the atomic age. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13, 310-319 (2001)
. Wen, W., Meintoth, J.L., Tsien, R.Y. & Taylor, S.S. Identification of a signal for rapid export of proteins from the nucleus. Cell 82, 463â€“473 (1995).
. Fischer, U. et al. The HIV-1 Rev activation domain is a nuclear export signal that accesses an export pathway used by specific cellular RNAs. Cell 82, 475â€“483 (1995).
. Richards, S. A., Carey, K. L. & Macara, I. G. Requirement of guanosine triphosphate-bound ran for signal-mediated nuclear protein export. Science 276, 1842â€“1844 (1997). . Stade, K., Ford, C. S., Guthrie, C. & Weis, K. Exportin 1 (Crm1p) is an essential nuclear export factor. Cell 90, 1041â€“1050 (1997).
. Fornerod, M., Ohno, M., Yoshida, M. & Mattaj, I. W. CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals. Cell 90, 1051â€“1060 (1997).
. Ossareh-Nazari, B., Bachelerie, F. & Dargemont, C. Evidence for a role of CRM1 in signal-mediated nuclear protein export. Science 278, 141â€“144 (1997).
. Fukuda, M. et al. CRM1 is responsible for intracellular transport meditted by the nuclear export signal. Nature 390, 308â€“311 (1997).
. Neville, M. et al. The importin-b family member Crm1p bridges the interaction between Rev and the nuclear pore complex during nuclear export. Curr. Biol. 7, 767â€“775 (1997).
. Bogerd, H. P. et al. Protein sequence requirements for function of the human T-cell leukemi virus type 1 Rex nuclear export signal delineated by a novel in vivo randomization-selection assay. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16, 4207â€“4214 (1996).
. Henderson, B. R. & Eleftheriou, A. A comparison of the activity, sequence specificity, and CRM1-dependence of different nuclear export signals. Exp. Cell Res. 256, 213â€“224 (2000).
. la Cour, T. et al. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals. Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 17, 527â€“536 (2004).
. Kutay, U. & Guttinger, S. Leucine-rich nuclear-export signals: born to be weak. Trends Cell Biol. 15, 121â€“124 (2005).
. Engelsma, D., Bernad, R., Calafat, J. & Fornerod, M. Supraphysiological nuclear export signals bind CRM1 independently of RanGTP and arrest at Nup358. EMBO J. 23, 3643â€“3652 (2004).
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